Open data kit sensors: a sensor integration framework for android at the application-level
Smartphones can now connect to a variety of external sensors over wired and wireless channels. However, ensuring proper device interaction can be burdensome, especially when a single application needs to integrate with a number of sensors using different communication channels and data formats. This paper presents a framework to simplify the interface between a variety of external sensors and consumer Android devices. The framework simplifies both application and driver development with abstractions that separate responsibilities between the user application, sensor framework, and device driver. These abstractions facilitate a componentized framework that allows developers to focus on writing minimal pieces of sensor-specific code enabling an ecosystem of reusable sensor drivers. The paper explores three alternative architectures for application-level drivers to understand trade-offs in performance, device portability, simplicity, and deployment ease. We explore these tradeoffs in the context of four sensing applications designed to support our work in the developing world. They highlight a range of sensor usage models for our application-level driver framework that vary data types, configuration methods, communication channels, and sampling rates to demonstrate the framework's effectiveness.